In the mountains outside the city of Thebes, numerous small valleys begin, the most famous of which is the Valley of the Kings, or “the valley of the royal tombs of Biban al-Muluyuk.” Once it was a gorge, lost among a pile of rocks. Today, despite the fact that people have paved convenient roads here, it remains shrouded in a haze of mystery.
The history of the Valley begins with the unexpected decision of Pharaoh Thutmose I to separate his tomb from the memorial temple and, moreover, to bury his body not in a magnificent tomb, but in a secret place. This decision violated the 1700-year tradition. The master of the pharaoh – Ineni – hollowed out for his master a grave in the form of a well in this secluded valley. A steep staircase led to the burial chamber at the bottom of the well, carved into the rock according to the plan, which was subsequently accepted by all the other pharaohs.
But the peace of Thutmose, like the other pharaohs, was short-lived. The history of the Valley of the Kings contains many facts related to robberies, thefts and night raids by torchlight. And we are talking not only about thieves who, already in the era of the pharaohs, systematically robbed graves to take possession of jewelry, but also very religious and devoted people who, believing that their master was in danger, transferred his mummy from one tomb to another. So Ramses III was buried three times! The robbery of graves from the 13th century BC It has become a kind of profession passed from father to son. Moreover, sarcophagi and precious pantries not only robbed, but also destroyed the mummies, fearing their revenge.
Monuments of Egypt – Valley of the Kings in Egypt
In a small village located in the immediate vicinity of the valley, a family of Abdyul Rasul kept a nameless secluded tomb in secret, where 36 sarcophagi were collected.
The secret was discovered in 1881 during a lengthy interrogation of family members, after which the director of the Cairo Museum was escorted to the entrance to the well. It is difficult to imagine what the scientist experienced when the torch illuminated the remains of the great pharaohs, who were in disarray.
Before him were the mummies of Amos I, Amenophis I, Thutmose III and Ramses II. A week later, 200 people packed the mummies and lowered them into the valley, from where the ship delivered them to the Cairo Museum.
This produced an unexpected and exciting effect: upon the news that the bodies of the pharaohs were leaving their centuries-old tomb, peasants and their wives crowded on the banks of the river to give honor to their ancient kings; watching the ship passing by, the men fired into the air with volleys of guns, the women lamented lamentably and dusted their heads.
The tomb of the pharaoh of the XIX dynasty of Seti I is a real underground palace: there are several ceremonial rooms decorated with images with inscriptions, passages, pantries. A long descent along the stairs and ramps is truly the path to the afterlife. The hall in which the sarcophagus once stood with the mummy of the pharaoh is famous for its ceiling painting: a symbolic image of the constellations and the solemn procession of the gods is placed on a thick blue background. The tomb of Ramses IX, although severely destroyed, is of interest for its picturesque decor with scenes inspired by the Book of the Dead, Prayers to the Sun, and the Book of Duat. famous for its ceiling painting: on a thick blue background, a symbolic image of the constellations and the solemn procession of the gods is placed.
The tomb of Ramses IX, although severely destroyed, is of interest for its picturesque decor with scenes inspired by the Book of the Dead, Prayers to the Sun, and the Book of Duat. famous for its ceiling painting: on a thick blue background, a symbolic image of the constellations and the solemn procession of the gods is placed. The tomb of Ramses IX, although severely destroyed, is of interest for its picturesque decor with scenes inspired by the Book of the Dead, Prayers to the Sun, and the Book of Duat.
The tomb of Ramses VI is comparatively small, has a beautifully painted ceiling, which depicts two celestial hemispheres and star gods, marching behind the sun rooks that sail across the celestial Nile. The entrance to the tomb of Amenophis II opens at the foot of a rocky cliff. A long corridor with very steep steps leads to the dungeon, forms a right angle and leads into a spacious hall, the ceiling of which is supported by six rectangular, beautifully decorated pylons. The tsar’s sarcophagus was found in this hall: the mummy was still untouched – with a garland of flowers around her neck and a bouquet of mimosa laid on her heart. On the walls, scenes from the Book of Duat, painted in black on a light yellow background, unfold like on a long scroll of papyrus.
The tomb of Thutmose III is considered one of the most beautiful tombs in the Valley of the Kings. The history of the reign of Thutmose III is replete with political and military events. The illegitimate son of Thutmose II, Thutmose III was proclaimed pharaoh after the death of his father, but in his infancy was removed from the throne by his aunt Hatshepsut, who declared herself regent. And only after her death could he again take the throne. Then Thutmose III began to take revenge on the late queen, ordering to destroy her name on all the monuments and replace him with his name or the name of his father.