The most famous tomb of the Valley of the Kings – the tomb of Tutankhamun. Tutankhamun, who died at the age of 18, became one of the most famous rulers of Ancient Egypt due to the fact that his tomb was the only royal burial that reached us not plundered. Tutankhamun ascended the throne at the age of 9 and did not leave any significant trace in the history of Egypt: we only know that during his reign in the country, the process of restoration of the old religious traditions and cult of the god Amun as the supreme deity of all Egypt, who were under the rule of the pharaoh, began -heretic Akhenaten were rejected for the supreme solar deity – Aton. Tutankhamun, whose name originally sounded “Tutankhaton”, changed it, thereby emphasizing his desire to revive the ancient cult of Amun.
During the reign of Tutankhamun, Egypt gradually restored its international influence, which was shaken during the reign of the pharaoh-reformer. Thanks to the commander Horemheb, who later became the last pharaoh of the XVIII dynasty, Tutankhamun strengthened the position of Egypt in Ethiopia and Syria. A brilliant future could have awaited him, but he unexpectedly died without leaving an heir-son.
Because of the sudden death, the pharaoh did not have time to prepare a worthy tomb, and therefore Tutankhamun was buried in a modest crypt, the entrance to which was eventually hidden under the huts of Egyptian workers who built a nearby tomb for the pharaoh of the 20th dynasty of Ramses VI. Thanks to this circumstance, the tomb of Tutankhamun was forgotten and stood untouched for more than three thousand years. The robbers, who decided to profit at the expense of Ramses Six, whose legends were riched about the wealth of the tomb, blowing up the entrance to the tomb, piled up huge stone fragments directly at the entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamun. In 1922, the tomb of Tutankhamun was accidentally discovered by a British archaeological expedition led by Howard Carter and Lord Cornarvon, the richest English aristocrat who financed the excavation.
The tomb of Tutankhamun became one of the greatest archaeological discoveries of the XX century. The eighteen-year-old pharaoh was buried with fantastic luxury: only 143 gold objects were placed on his mummy, the mummy itself was stored in three sarcophagi inserted into each other, the last of which, 1.85 m long, was made of pure gold. In addition, in the tomb were found the royal throne, decorated with relief images, statuettes of the king and his wife, many ritual vessels, jewelry, weapons, clothes and, finally, the magnificent golden funerary mask of Tutankhamun that accurately conveys the facial features of the young pharaoh.
But what struck Carter and the members of his expedition most of all was the small wreath of dried flowers lying among the golden splendor – the last touching farewell of the young pharaoh’s wife. Recall that with this story of the opening of the tomb, romantic in itself, there is still an unclear legend about the “curse of the pharaoh”. The premature violent or sudden death of most of the members of the expedition of Lord Carnavon, with the exception of, oddly enough, Carter himself, sparked rumors about the posthumous revenge of the pharaoh, whose eternal rest was disturbed.
The story is full of legends of this kind, but this only adds a mysterious charm to the romantic story of Tutankhamun.
However, we must not forget that we are dealing with the burial of the 18-year-old pharaoh, who did not have time to accomplish anything significant in Egyptian history, equal to what the great pharaohs such as Thutmose III or Ramses II did.